**Latent Tree Variational Autoencoder (LTVAE)**

Recently, deep learning based clustering methods are shown superior to traditional ones by jointly conducting representation learning and clustering. These methods rely on the assumptions that the number of clusters is known, and that there is one single partition over the data and all attributes define that partition. However, in real-world applications, prior knowledge of the number of clusters is usually unavailable and there are multiple ways to partition the data based on subsets of attributes. To resolve the issues, we propose latent tree variational autoencoder (LTVAE), which simultaneously performs representation learning and multidimensional clustering. LTVAE learns latent embeddings from data, discovers multi-facet clustering structures based on subsets of latent features, and automatically determines the number of clusters in each facet. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art clustering performance and reals reasonable multifacet structures of the data. … **Meta-Embedding**

Click-through rate (CTR) prediction has been one of the most central problems in computational advertising. Lately, embedding techniques that produce low-dimensional representations of ad IDs drastically improve CTR prediction accuracies. However, such learning techniques are data demanding and work poorly on new ads with little logging data, which is known as the cold-start problem. In this paper, we aim to improve CTR predictions during both the cold-start phase and the warm-up phase when a new ad is added to the candidate pool. We propose Meta-Embedding, a meta-learning-based approach that learns to generate desirable initial embeddings for new ad IDs. The proposed method trains an embedding generator for new ad IDs by making use of previously learned ads through gradient-based meta-learning. In other words, our method learns how to learn better embeddings. When a new ad comes, the trained generator initializes the embedding of its ID by feeding its contents and attributes. Next, the generated embedding can speed up the model fitting during the warm-up phase when a few labeled examples are available, compared to the existing initialization methods. Experimental results on three real-world datasets showed that Meta-Embedding can significantly improve both the cold-start and warm-up performances for six existing CTR prediction models, ranging from lightweight models such as Factorization Machines to complicated deep models such as PNN and DeepFM. All of the above apply to conversion rate (CVR) predictions as well. … **Multiplicative Weights Update (MWU)**

The multiplicative weights update method is an algorithmic technique most commonly used for decision making and prediction, and also widely deployed in game theory and algorithm design. The simplest use case is the problem of prediction from expert advice, in which a decision maker needs to iteratively decide on an expert whose advice to follow. The method assigns initial weights to the experts (usually identical initial weights), and updates these weights multiplicatively and iteratively according to the feedback of how well an expert performed: reducing it in case of poor performance, and increasing it otherwise. It was discovered repeatedly in very diverse fields such as machine learning (AdaBoost, Winnow, Hedge), optimization (solving linear programs), theoretical computer science (devising fast algorithm for LPs and SDPs), and game theory.

Multiplicative Weights Updates as a distributed constrained optimization algorithm: Convergence to second-order stationary points almost always … **Causal Model**

A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation. Judea Pearl defines a causal model as an ordered triple <U,V,E> , where U is a set of exogenous variables whose values are determined by factors outside the model; V is a set of endogenous variables whose values are determined by factors within the model; and E is a set of structural equations that express the value of each endogenous variable as a function of the values of the other variables in U and V.

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# If you did not already know

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