**Sparseout**

Dropout is commonly used to help reduce overfitting in deep neural networks. Sparsity is a potentially important property of neural networks, but is not explicitly controlled by Dropout-based regularization. In this work, we propose Sparseout a simple and efficient variant of Dropout that can be used to control the sparsity of the activations in a neural network. We theoretically prove that Sparseout is equivalent to an $L_q$ penalty on the features of a generalized linear model and that Dropout is a special case of Sparseout for neural networks. We empirically demonstrate that Sparseout is computationally inexpensive and is able to control the desired level of sparsity in the activations. We evaluated Sparseout on image classification and language modelling tasks to see the effect of sparsity on these tasks. We found that sparsity of the activations is favorable for language modelling performance while image classification benefits from denser activations. Sparseout provides a way to investigate sparsity in state-of-the-art deep learning models. Source code for Sparseout could be found at \url{https://…/sparseout}. … **Adversarial Erasing Embedding Network With the Guidance of High-Order Attributes (AEEN-HOA)**

In this paper, an adversarial erasing embedding network with the guidance of high-order attributes (AEEN-HOA) is proposed for going further to solve the challenging ZSL/GZSL task. AEEN-HOA consists of two branches, i.e., the upper stream is capable of erasing some initially discovered regions, then the high-order attribute supervision is incorporated to characterize the relationship between the class attributes. Meanwhile, the bottom stream is trained by taking the current background regions to train the same attribute. As far as we know, it is the first time of introducing the erasing operations into the ZSL task. In addition, we first propose a class attribute activation map for the visualization of ZSL output, which shows the relationship between class attribute feature and attention map. Experiments on four standard benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of AEEN-HOA framework. … **Shampoo**

Preconditioned gradient methods are among the most general and powerful tools in optimization. However, preconditioning requires storing and manipulating prohibitively large matrices. We describe and analyze a new structure-aware preconditioning algorithm, called Shampoo, for stochastic optimization over tensor spaces. Shampoo maintains a set of preconditioning matrices, each of which operates on a single dimension, contracting over the remaining dimensions. We establish convergence guarantees in the stochastic convex setting, the proof of which builds upon matrix trace inequalities. Our experiments with state-of-the-art deep learning models show that Shampoo is capable of converging considerably faster than commonly used optimizers. Although it involves a more complex update rule, Shampoo’s runtime per step is comparable to that of simple gradient methods such as SGD, AdaGrad, and Adam. … **Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)**

Deep metric learning, which learns discriminative features to process image clustering and retrieval tasks, has attracted extensive attention in recent years. A number of deep metric learning methods, which ensure that similar examples are mapped close to each other and dissimilar examples are mapped farther apart, have been proposed to construct effective structures for loss functions and have shown promising results. In this paper, different from the approaches on learning the loss structures, we propose a robust SNR distance metric based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for measuring the similarity of image pairs for deep metric learning. By exploring the properties of our SNR distance metric from the view of geometry space and statistical theory, we analyze the properties of our metric and show that it can preserve the semantic similarity between image pairs, which well justify its suitability for deep metric learning. Compared with Euclidean distance metric, our SNR distance metric can further jointly reduce the intra-class distances and enlarge the inter-class distances for learned features. Leveraging our SNR distance metric, we propose Deep SNR-based Metric Learning (DSML) to generate discriminative feature embeddings. By extensive experiments on three widely adopted benchmarks, including CARS196, CUB200-2011 and CIFAR10, our DSML has shown its superiority over other state-of-the-art methods. Additionally, we extend our SNR distance metric to deep hashing learning, and conduct experiments on two benchmarks, including CIFAR10 and NUS-WIDE, to demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our SNR distance metric.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio: A Robust Distance Metric for Deep Metric Learning …

# If you did not already know

**28**
*Tuesday*
May 2019

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