**Porcellio Scaber Algorithm (PSA)**

Bio-inspired algorithms have received a significant amount of attention in both academic and engineering societies. In this paper, based on the observation of two major survival rules of a species of woodlice, i.e., porcellio scaber, we design and propose an algorithm called the porcellio scaber algorithm (PSA) for solving optimization problems, including differentiable and non-differential ones as well as the case with local optimums. Numerical results based on benchmark problems are presented to validate the efficacy of PSA. … **GeoSay**

Automatic extraction of buildings in remote sensing images is an important but challenging task and finds many applications in different fields such as urban planning, navigation and so on. This paper addresses the problem of buildings extraction in very high-spatial-resolution (VHSR) remote sensing (RS) images, whose spatial resolution is often up to half meters and provides rich information about buildings. Based on the observation that buildings in VHSR-RS images are always more distinguishable in geometry than in texture or spectral domain, this paper proposes a geometric building index (GBI) for accurate building extraction, by computing the geometric saliency from VHSR-RS images. More precisely, given an image, the geometric saliency is derived from a mid-level geometric representations based on meaningful junctions that can locally describe geometrical structures of images. The resulting GBI is finally measured by integrating the derived geometric saliency of buildings. Experiments on three public and commonly used datasets demonstrate that the proposed GBI achieves the state-of-the-art performance and shows impressive generalization capability. Additionally, GBI preserves both the exact position and accurate shape of single buildings compared to existing methods. … **Frequent Pattern Mining**

The problem of frequent pattern mining is that of finding relationships among the items in a database. The problem can be stated as follows. Given a database D with transactions T1 … TN, determine all patterns P that are present in at least a fraction s of the transactions. The fraction s is referred to as the minimum support. The parameter s can be expressed either as an absolute number, or as a fraction of the total number of transactions in the database. Each transaction Ti can be considered a sparse binary vector, or as a set of discrete values representing the identifiers of the binary attributes that are instantiated to the value of 1. The problem was originally proposed in the context of market basket data in order to find frequent groups of items that are bought together. Thus, in this scenario, each attribute corresponds to an item in a superstore, and the binary value represents whether or not it is present in the transaction. Because the problem was originally proposed, it has been applied to numerous other applications in the context of data mining,Web log mining, sequential pattern mining, and software bug analysis. … **Random KNN Feature Selection (RKNN-FS)**

We present RKNN-FS, an innovative feature selection procedure for ‘small n, large p problems.’ RKNN-FS is based on Random KNN (RKNN), a novel generalization of traditional nearest-neighbor modeling. RKNN consists of an ensemble of base k-nearest neighbor models, each constructed from a random subset of the input variables. To rank the importance of the variables, we define a criterion on the RKNN framework, using the notion of support. A two-stage backward model selection method is then developed based on this criterion. Empirical results on microarray data sets with thousands of variables and relatively few samples show that RKNN-FS is an effective feature selection approach for high-dimensional data. RKNN is similar to Random Forests in terms of classification accuracy without feature selection. However, RKNN provides much better classification accuracy than RF when each method incorporates a feature-selection step. Our results show that RKNN is significantly more stable and more robust than Random Forests for feature selection when the input data are noisy and/or unbalanced. Further, RKNN-FS is much faster than the Random Forests feature selection method (RF-FS), especially for large scale problems, involving thousands of variables and multiple classes. …

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