Spatio-Temporal U-Network (ST-UNet) google
The spatio-temporal graph learning is becoming an increasingly important object of graph study. Many application domains involve highly dynamic graphs where temporal information is crucial, e.g. traffic networks and financial transaction graphs. Despite the constant progress made on learning structured data, there is still a lack of effective means to extract dynamic complex features from spatio-temporal structures. Particularly, conventional models such as convolutional networks or recurrent neural networks are incapable of revealing the temporal patterns in short or long terms and exploring the spatial properties in local or global scope from spatio-temporal graphs simultaneously. To tackle this problem, we design a novel multi-scale architecture, Spatio-Temporal U-Net (ST-UNet), for graph-structured time series modeling. In this U-shaped network, a paired sampling operation is proposed in spacetime domain accordingly: the pooling (ST-Pool) coarsens the input graph in spatial from its deterministic partition while abstracts multi-resolution temporal dependencies through dilated recurrent skip connections; based on previous settings in the downsampling, the unpooling (ST-Unpool) restores the original structure of spatio-temporal graphs and resumes regular intervals within graph sequences. Experiments on spatio-temporal prediction tasks demonstrate that our model effectively captures comprehensive features in multiple scales and achieves substantial improvements over mainstream methods on several real-world datasets. …

Drift Analysis google
Drift analysis is among the most powerful theoretical tools available for estimating the optimisation time of meta-heuristics. Informally, it shows how the challenging problem of predicting the long-term behaviour of a meta-heuristic can be reduced to the often trivial problem of describing how the state of the heuristic changes during one iteration. Drift analysis has dramatically simplified the analysis of meta-heuristics. Many of the most important results about the optimisation time of meta-heuristics were obtained with the help of drift analysis.
Drift Analysis
Multiplicative Up-Drift


Data Calculator google
Data structures are critical in any data-driven scenario, but they are notoriously hard to design due to a massive design space and the dependence of performance on workload and hardware which evolve continuously. We present a design engine, the Data Calculator, which enables interactive and semi-automated design of data structures. It brings two innovations. First, it offers a set of fine-grained design primitives that capture the first principles of data layout design: how data structure nodes lay data out, and how they are positioned relative to each other. This allows for a structured description of the universe of possible data structure designs that can be synthesized as combinations of those primitives. The second innovation is computation of performance using learned cost models. These models are trained on diverse hardware and data profiles and capture the cost properties of fundamental data access primitives (e.g., random access). With these models, we synthesize the performance cost of complex operations on arbitrary data structure designs without having to: 1) implement the data structure, 2) run the workload, or even 3) access the target hardware. We demonstrate that the Data Calculator can assist data structure designers and researchers by accurately answering rich what-if design questions on the order of a few seconds or minutes, i.e., computing how the performance (response time) of a given data structure design is impacted by variations in the: 1) design, 2) hardware, 3) data, and 4) query workloads. This makes it effortless to test numerous designs and ideas before embarking on lengthy implementation, deployment, and hardware acquisition steps. We also demonstrate that the Data Calculator can synthesize entirely new designs, auto-complete partial designs, and detect suboptimal design choices.
The Data Calculator: Data Structure Design and Cost Synthesis From First Principles, and Learned Cost Models


Toybox google
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have enjoyed tremendous success in computer vision in the past several years, particularly for visual object recognition.However, how CNNs work remains poorly understood, and the training of deep CNNs is still considered more art than science. To better characterize deep CNNs and the training process, we introduce a new video dataset called Toybox. Images in Toybox come from first-person, wearable camera recordings of common household objects and toys being manually manipulated to undergo structured transformations like rotations and translations. We also present results from initial experiments using deep CNNs that begin to examine how different distributions of training data can affect visual object recognition performance, and how visual object concepts are represented within a trained network. …

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