Data Journalism / Data Driven Journalism google
Data-driven journalism, often shortened to “ddj”, is a term in use since 2009/2010, to describe a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating a news story. Main drivers for this process are newly available resources such as “open source” software and “open data”. This approach to journalism builds on older practices, most notably on CAR (acronym for “computer-assisted reporting”) a label used mainly in the US for decades. Other labels for partially similar approaches are “precision journalism”, based on a book by Philipp Meyer, published in 1972, where he advocated the use of techniques from social sciences in researching stories. …

Kinetic Euclidean Distance Matrix (KEDM) google
Euclidean distance matrices (EDMs) are a major tool for localization from distances, with applications ranging from protein structure determination to global positioning and manifold learning. They are, however, static objects which serve to localize points from a snapshot of distances. If the objects move, one expects to do better by modeling the motion. In this paper, we introduce Kinetic Euclidean Distance Matrices (KEDMs)—a new kind of time-dependent distance matrices that incorporate motion. The entries of KEDMs become functions of time, the squared time-varying distances. We study two smooth trajectory models—polynomial and bandlimited trajectories—and show that these trajectories can be reconstructed from incomplete, noisy distance observations, scattered over multiple time instants. Our main contribution is a semidefinite relaxation (SDR), inspired by SDRs for static EDMs. Similarly to the static case, the SDR is followed by a spectral factorization step; however, because spectral factorization of polynomial matrices is more challenging than for constant matrices, we propose a new factorization method that uses anchor measurements. Extensive numerical experiments show that KEDMs and the new semidefinite relaxation accurately reconstruct trajectories from noisy, incomplete distance data and that, in fact, motion improves rather than degrades localization if properly modeled. This makes KEDMs a promising tool for problems in geometry of dynamic points sets. …

Oscillatory Recurrent GAted Neural Integrator Circuits (ORGaNICs) google
Working memory is a cognitive process that is responsible for temporarily holding and manipulating information. Most of the empirical neuroscience research on working memory has focused on measuring sustained activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or parietal cortex during simple delayed-response tasks, and most of the models of working memory have been based on neural integrators. But working memory means much more than just holding a piece of information online. We describe a new theory of working memory, based on a recurrent neural circuit that we call ORGaNICs (Oscillatory Recurrent GAted Neural Integrator Circuits). ORGaNICs are a variety of Long Short Term Memory units (LSTMs), imported from machine learning and artificial intelligence. ORGaNICs can be used to explain the complex dynamics of delay-period activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a working memory task. The theory is analytically tractable so that we can characterize the dynamics, and the theory provides a means for reading out information from the dynamically varying responses at any point in time, in spite of the complex dynamics. ORGaNICs can be implemented with a biophysical (electrical circuit) model of pyramidal cells, combined with shunting inhibition via a thalamocortical loop. Although introduced as a computational theory of working memory, ORGaNICs are also applicable to models of sensory processing, motor preparation and motor control. ORGaNICs offer computational advantages compared to other varieties of LSTMs that are commonly used in AI applications. Consequently, ORGaNICs are a framework for canonical computation in brains and machines. …

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