Baum-Welch Algorithm google
In electrical engineering, computer science, statistical computing and bioinformatics, the Baum-Welch algorithm is used to find the unknown parameters of a hidden Markov model (HMM). It makes use of the forward-backward algorithm and is named for Leonard E. Baum and Lloyd R. Welch. …

Self-Attention Based Sequential Model (SASRec) google
Sequential dynamics are a key feature of many modern recommender systems, which seek to capture the `context’ of users’ activities on the basis of actions they have performed recently. To capture such patterns, two approaches have proliferated: Markov Chains (MCs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Markov Chains assume that a user’s next action can be predicted on the basis of just their last (or last few) actions, while RNNs in principle allow for longer-term semantics to be uncovered. Generally speaking, MC-based methods perform best in extremely sparse datasets, where model parsimony is critical, while RNNs perform better in denser datasets where higher model complexity is affordable. The goal of our work is to balance these two goals, by proposing a self-attention based sequential model (SASRec) that allows us to capture long-term semantics (like an RNN), but, using an attention mechanism, makes its predictions based on relatively few actions (like an MC). At each time step, SASRec seeks to identify which items are `relevant’ from a user’s action history, and use them to predict the next item. Extensive empirical studies show that our method outperforms various state-of-the-art sequential models (including MC/CNN/RNN-based approaches) on both sparse and dense datasets. Moreover, the model is an order of magnitude more efficient than comparable CNN/RNN-based models. Visualizations on attention weights also show how our model adaptively handles datasets with various density, and uncovers meaningful patterns in activity sequences. …

U-Net google
Machine reading comprehension with unanswerable questions is a new challenging task for natural language processing. A key subtask is to reliably predict whether the question is unanswerable. In this paper, we propose a unified model, called U-Net, with three important components: answer pointer, no-answer pointer, and answer verifier. We introduce a universal node and thus process the question and its context passage as a single contiguous sequence of tokens. The universal node encodes the fused information from both the question and passage, and plays an important role to predict whether the question is answerable and also greatly improves the conciseness of the U-Net. Different from the state-of-art pipeline models, U-Net can be learned in an end-to-end fashion. The experimental results on the SQuAD 2.0 dataset show that U-Net can effectively predict the unanswerability of questions and achieves an F1 score of 71.7 on SQuAD 2.0. …

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