Weighted Label Smoothing Regularization (WLSR) google
Conventional approaches used supervised learning to estimate off-line writer identifications. In this study, we improved the off-line writer identifications by semi-supervised feature learning pipeline, which trained the extra unlabeled data and the original labeled data simultaneously. In specific, we proposed a weighted label smoothing regularization (WLSR) method, which assigned the weighted uniform label distribution to the extra unlabeled data. We regularized the convolutional neural network (CNN) baseline, which allows learning more discriminative features to represent the properties of different writing styles. Based on experiments on ICDAR2013, CVL and IAM benchmark datasets, our results showed that semi-supervised feature learning improved the baseline measurement and achieved better performance compared with existing writer identifications approaches. …

Randomized Response google
Randomized response is a research method used in structured survey interview. It was first proposed by S. L. Warner in 19651 and later modified by B. G. Greenberg in 1969.2 It allows respondents to respond to sensitive issues (such as criminal behavior or sexuality) while maintaining confidentiality. Chance decides, unknown to the interviewer, whether the question is to be answered truthfully, or “yes”, regardless of the truth. For example, social scientists have used it to ask people whether they use drugs, whether they have illegally installed telephones, or whether they have evaded paying taxes. Before abortions were legal, social scientists used the method to ask women whether they had had abortions. …

OpenStreetMap (OSM) google
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Two major driving forces behind the establishment and growth of OSM have been restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world and the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. Created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the preponderance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since then, it has grown to over 1.6 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data is then made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organization registered in England. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the OpenStreetMap project is considered its primary output. This data is then available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Craigslist, OsmAnd, Geocaching, MapQuest Open, JMP statistical software, and Foursquare to replace Google Maps, and more unusual roles, like replacing default data included with GPS receivers. This data has been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, though data quality varies worldwide.