**Large-Scale Information Network Embedding (LINE)**

This paper studies the problem of embedding very large information networks into low-dimensional vector spaces, which is useful in many tasks such as visualization, node classification, and link prediction. Most existing graph embedding methods do not scale for real world information networks which usually contain millions of nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel network embedding method called the ‘LINE,’ which is suitable for arbitrary types of information networks: undirected, directed, and/or weighted. The method optimizes a carefully designed objective function that preserves both the local and global network structures. An edge-sampling algorithm is proposed that addresses the limitation of the classical stochastic gradient descent and improves both the effectiveness and the efficiency of the inference. Empirical experiments prove the effectiveness of the LINE on a variety of real-world information networks, including language networks, social networks, and citation networks. The algorithm is very efficient, which is able to learn the embedding of a network with millions of vertices and billions of edges in a few hours on a typical single machine. The source code of the LINE is available online. … **Determinized Sparse Partially Observable Tree (DESPOT)**

The partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) provides a principled general framework for planning under uncertainty, but solving POMDPs optimally is computationally intractable, due to the ‘curse of dimensionality’ and the ‘curse of history’. To overcome these challenges, we introduce the Determinized Sparse Partially Observable Tree (DESPOT), a sparse approximation of the standard belief tree, for online planning under uncertainty. A DESPOT focuses online planning on a set of randomly sampled scenarios and compactly captures the ‘execution’ of all policies under these scenarios. We show that the best policy obtained from a DESPOT is near-optimal, with a regret bound that depends on the representation size of the optimal policy. Leveraging this result, we give an anytime online planning algorithm, which searches a DESPOT for a policy that optimizes a regularized objective function. Regularization balances the estimated value of a policy under the sampled scenarios and the policy size, thus avoiding overfitting. The algorithm demonstrates strong experimental results, compared with some of the best online POMDP algorithms available. It has also been incorporated into an autonomous driving system for realtime vehicle control. … **Support Vector Machine (SVM)**

In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns, used for classification and regression analysis. Given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, an SVM training algorithm builds a model that assigns new examples into one category or the other, making it a non-probabilistic binary linear classifier. An SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that the examples of the separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible. New examples are then mapped into that same space and predicted to belong to a category based on which side of the gap they fall on. …

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**07**
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Mar 2019

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