Online Gradient Descent (OGD) In stochastic (or “on-line”) gradient descent, the true gradient of Q(w) is approximated by a gradient at a single example. … As the algorithm sweeps through the training set, it performs the above update for each training example. Several passes can be made over the training set until the algorithm converges. If this is done, the data can be shuffled for each pass to prevent cycles. Typical implementations may use an adaptive learning rate so that the algorithm converges. …

Gibbs-Klein Algorithm (GK) Sampling from lattice Gaussian distribution has emerged as an important problem in coding, decoding and cryptography. In this paper, the classic Gibbs algorithm from Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods is demonstrated to be geometrically ergodic for lattice Gaussian sampling, which means the Markov chain arising from it converges exponentially fast to the stationary distribution. Meanwhile, the exponential convergence rate of Markov chain is also derived through the spectral radius of forward operator. Then, a comprehensive analysis regarding to the convergence rate is carried out and two sampling schemes are proposed to further enhance the convergence performance. The first one, referred to as Metropolis-within-Gibbs (MWG) algorithm, improves the convergence by refining the state space of the univariate sampling. On the other hand, the blocked strategy of Gibbs algorithm, which performs the sampling over multivariate at each Markov move, is also shown to yield a better convergence rate than the traditional univariate sampling. In order to perform blocked sampling efficiently, Gibbs-Klein (GK) algorithm is proposed, which samples block by block using Klein’s algorithm. Furthermore, the validity of GK algorithm is demonstrated by showing its ergodicity. Simulation results based on MIMO detections are presented to confirm the convergence gain brought by the proposed Gibbs sampling schemes. …

Spaghetti Plot A spaghetti plot (also known as a spaghetti chart, spaghetti diagram, or spaghetti model) is a method of viewing data to visualize possible flows through systems. Flows depicted in this manner appear like noodles, hence the coining of this term. This method of statistics was first used to track routing through factories. Visualizing flow in this manner can reduce inefficiency within the flow of a system. In regards to animal populations and weather buoys drifting through the ocean, they are drawn to study distribution and migration patterns. Within meteorology, these diagrams can help determine confidence in a specific weather forecast, as well as positions and intensities of high and low pressure systems. They are composed of deterministic forecasts from atmospheric models or their various ensemble members. Within medicine, they can illustrate the effects of drugs on patients during drug trials. …

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