CausalGAN google
We propose an adversarial training procedure for learning a causal implicit generative model for a given causal graph. We show that adversarial training can be used to learn a generative model with true observational and interventional distributions if the generator architecture is consistent with the given causal graph. We consider the application of generating faces based on given binary labels where the dependency structure between the labels is preserved with a causal graph. This problem can be seen as learning a causal implicit generative model for the image and labels. We devise a two-stage procedure for this problem. First we train a causal implicit generative model over binary labels using a neural network consistent with a causal graph as the generator. We empirically show that WassersteinGAN can be used to output discrete labels. Later, we propose two new conditional GAN architectures, which we call CausalGAN and CausalBEGAN. We show that the optimal generator of the CausalGAN, given the labels, samples from the image distributions conditioned on these labels. The conditional GAN combined with a trained causal implicit generative model for the labels is then a causal implicit generative model over the labels and the generated image. We show that the proposed architectures can be used to sample from observational and interventional image distributions, even for interventions which do not naturally occur in the dataset. …

Local Coordinate Coding (LCC) google
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) aim to generate realistic data from some prior distribution (e.g., Gaussian noises). However, such prior distribution is often independent of real data and thus may lose semantic information (e.g., geometric structure or content in images) of data. In practice, the semantic information might be represented by some latent distribution learned from data, which, however, is hard to be used for sampling in GANs. In this paper, rather than sampling from the pre-defined prior distribution, we propose a Local Coordinate Coding (LCC) based sampling method to improve GANs. We derive a generalization bound for LCC based GANs and prove that a small dimensional input is sufficient to achieve good generalization. Extensive experiments on various real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. …

Tikhonov Regularization google
Tikhonov regularization, named for Andrey Tikhonov, is the most commonly used method of regularization of ill-posed problems. In statistics, the method is known as ridge regression, and with multiple independent discoveries, it is also variously known as the Tikhonov-Miller method, the Phillips-Twomey method, the constrained linear inversion method, and the method of linear regularization. It is related to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least-squares problems.