**K-Groups**

We propose a new class of distribution-based clustering algorithms, called k-groups, based on energy distance between samples. The energy distance clustering criterion assigns observations to clusters according to a multi-sample energy statistic that measures the distance between distributions. The energy distance determines a consistent test for equality of distributions, and it is based on a population distance that characterizes equality of distributions. The k-groups procedure therefore generalizes the k-means method, which separates clusters that have different means. We propose two k-groups algorithms: k-groups by first variation; and k-groups by second variation. The implementation of k-groups is partly based on Hartigan and Wong’s algorithm for k-means. The algorithm is generalized from moving one point on each iteration (first variation) to moving $m$ $(m > 1)$ points. For univariate data, we prove that Hartigan and Wong’s k-means algorithm is a special case of k-groups by first variation. The simulation results from univariate and multivariate cases show that our k-groups algorithms perform as well as Hartigan and Wong’s k-means algorithm when clusters are well-separated and normally distributed. Moreover, both k-groups algorithms perform better than k-means when data does not have a finite first moment or data has strong skewness and heavy tails. For non–spherical clusters, both k-groups algorithms performed better than k-means in high dimension, and k-groups by first variation is consistent as dimension increases. In a case study on dermatology data with 34 features, both k-groups algorithms performed better than k-means. … **Logarithmic Temporal Coding (LTC)**

A Spiking Neural Network (SNN) can be trained indirectly by first training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the conventional backpropagation algorithm, then converting it into an SNN. The conventional rate-coding method for SNNs uses the number of spikes to encode magnitude of an activation value, and may be computationally inefficient due to the large number of spikes. Temporal-coding is typically more efficient by leveraging the timing of spikes to encode information. In this paper, we present Logarithmic Temporal Coding (LTC), where the number of spikes used to encode an activation value grows logarithmically with the activation value; and the accompanying Exponentiate-and-Fire (EF) spiking neuron model, which only involves efficient bit-shift and addition operations. Moreover, we improve the training process of ANN to compensate for approximation errors due to LTC. Experimental results indicate that the resulting SNN achieves competitive performance at significantly lower computational cost than related work. … **Import Vector Machines**

The Import Vector Machines (Zhu and Hastie 2005) are a sparse, discriminative and probabilistic classifier. The algorithm is based on the Kernel Logistic Regression model, but uses only a few data points to define the decision hyperplane in the feature space. These data points are called import vectors. The Import Vector Machine shows similar results to the widely used Support Vector Machine, but has a probabilistic output. …

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**14**
*Monday*
Jan 2019

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