Deep neural networks have become state-of-the-art technology for a wide range of practical machine learning tasks such as image classification, handwritten digit recognition, speech recognition, or game intelligence. This paper develops the fundamental limits of learning in deep neural networks by characterizing what is possible if no constraints on the learning algorithm and the amount of training data are imposed. Concretely, we consider information-theoretically optimal approximation through deep neural networks with the guiding theme being a relation between the complexity of the function (class) to be approximated and the complexity of the approximating network in terms of connectivity and memory requirements for storing the network topology and the associated quantized weights. The theory we develop educes remarkable universality properties of deep networks. Specifically, deep networks are optimal approximants for vastly different function classes such as affine systems and Gabor systems. This universality is afforded by a concurrent invariance property of deep networks to time-shifts, scalings, and frequency-shifts. In addition, deep networks provide exponential approximation accuracy i.e., the approximation error decays exponentially in the number of non-zero weights in the network of vastly different functions such as the squaring operation, multiplication, polynomials, sinusoidal functions, general smooth functions, and even one-dimensional oscillatory textures and fractal functions such as the Weierstrass function, both of which do not have any known methods achieving exponential approximation accuracy. In summary, deep neural networks provide information-theoretically optimal approximation of a very wide range of functions and function classes used in mathematical signal processing. Deep Neural Network Approximation Theory