Gradient Adversarial Training google
We propose gradient adversarial training, an auxiliary deep learning framework applicable to different machine learning problems. In gradient adversarial training, we leverage a prior belief that in many contexts, simultaneous gradient updates should be statistically indistinguishable from each other. We enforce this consistency using an auxiliary network that classifies the origin of the gradient tensor, and the main network serves as an adversary to the auxiliary network in addition to performing standard task-based training. We demonstrate gradient adversarial training for three different scenarios: (1) as a defense to adversarial examples we classify gradient tensors and tune them to be agnostic to the class of their corresponding example, (2) for knowledge distillation, we do binary classification of gradient tensors derived from the student or teacher network and tune the student gradient tensor to mimic the teacher’s gradient tensor; and (3) for multi-task learning we classify the gradient tensors derived from different task loss functions and tune them to be statistically indistinguishable. For each of the three scenarios we show the potential of gradient adversarial training procedure. Specifically, gradient adversarial training increases the robustness of a network to adversarial attacks, is able to better distill the knowledge from a teacher network to a student network compared to soft targets, and boosts multi-task learning by aligning the gradient tensors derived from the task specific loss functions. Overall, our experiments demonstrate that gradient tensors contain latent information about whatever tasks are being trained, and can support diverse machine learning problems when intelligently guided through adversarialization using a auxiliary network. …

Complementary Temporal Action Proposal (CTAP) google
Temporal action proposal generation is an important task, akin to object proposals, temporal action proposals are intended to capture ‘clips’ or temporal intervals in videos that are likely to contain an action. Previous methods can be divided to two groups: sliding window ranking and actionness score grouping. Sliding windows uniformly cover all segments in videos, but the temporal boundaries are imprecise; grouping based method may have more precise boundaries but it may omit some proposals when the quality of actionness score is low. Based on the complementary characteristics of these two methods, we propose a novel Complementary Temporal Action Proposal (CTAP) generator. Specifically, we apply a Proposal-level Actionness Trustworthiness Estimator (PATE) on the sliding windows proposals to generate the probabilities indicating whether the actions can be correctly detected by actionness scores, the windows with high scores are collected. The collected sliding windows and actionness proposals are then processed by a temporal convolutional neural network for proposal ranking and boundary adjustment. CTAP outperforms state-of-the-art methods on average recall (AR) by a large margin on THUMOS-14 and ActivityNet 1.3 datasets. We further apply CTAP as a proposal generation method in an existing action detector, and show consistent significant improvements. …

Multi-Task Learning (MTL) google
One of the key challenges in predictive maintenance is to predict the impending downtime of an equipment with a reasonable prediction horizon so that countermeasures can be put in place. Classically, this problem has been posed in two different ways which are typically solved independently: (1) Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation as a long-term prediction task to estimate how much time is left in the useful life of the equipment and (2) Failure prediction (FP) as a short-term prediction task to assess the probability of a failure within a pre-specified time window. As these two tasks are related, performing them separately is sub-optimal and might results in inconsistent predictions for the same equipment. In order to alleviate these issues, we propose two methods: Deep Weibull model (DW-RNN) and multi-task learning (MTL-RNN). DW-RNN is able to learn the underlying failure dynamics by fitting Weibull distribution parameters using a deep neural network, learned with a survival likelihood, without training directly on each task. While DW-RNN makes an explicit assumption on the data distribution, MTL-RNN exploits the implicit relationship between the long-term RUL and short-term FP tasks to learn the underlying distribution. Additionally, both our methods can leverage the non-failed equipment data for RUL estimation. We demonstrate that our methods consistently outperform baseline RUL methods that can be used for FP while producing consistent results for RUL and FP. We also show that our methods perform at par with baselines trained on the objectives optimized for either of the two tasks. …

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