Algebraic Machine Learning google
Machine learning algorithms use error function minimization to fit a large set of parameters in a preexisting model. However, error minimization eventually leads to a memorization of the training dataset, losing the ability to generalize to other datasets. To achieve generalization something else is needed, for example a regularization method or stopping the training when error in a validation dataset is minimal. Here we propose a different approach to learning and generalization that is parameter-free, fully discrete and that does not use function minimization. We use the training data to find an algebraic representation with minimal size and maximal freedom, explicitly expressed as a product of irreducible components. This algebraic representation is shown to directly generalize, giving high accuracy in test data, more so the smaller the representation. We prove that the number of generalizing representations can be very large and the algebra only needs to find one. We also derive and test a relationship between compression and error rate. We give results for a simple problem solved step by step, hand-written character recognition, and the Queens Completion problem as an example of unsupervised learning. As an alternative to statistical learning, \enquote{algebraic learning} may offer advantages in combining bottom-up and top-down information, formal concept derivation from data and large-scale parallelization. …

Recommendation Engine of Multilayers (REM) google
Recommender systems have been widely adopted by electronic commerce and entertainment industries for individualized prediction and recommendation, which benefit consumers and improve business intelligence. In this article, we propose an innovative method, namely the recommendation engine of multilayers (REM), for tensor recommender systems. The proposed method utilizes the structure of a tensor response to integrate information from multiple modes, and creates an additional layer of nested latent factors to accommodate between-subjects dependency. One major advantage is that the proposed method is able to address the ‘cold-start’ issue in the absence of information from new customers, new products or new contexts. Specifically, it provides more effective recommendations through sub-group information. To achieve scalable computation, we develop a new algorithm for the proposed method, which incorporates a maximum block improvement strategy into the cyclic blockwise-coordinate-descent algorithm. In theory, we investigate both algorithmic properties for global and local convergence, along with the asymptotic consistency of estimated parameters. Finally, the proposed method is applied in simulations and IRI marketing data with 116 million observations of product sales. Numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms existing competitors in the literature. …

Weighted Object k-Means google
Weighted object version of k-means algorithm, robust against outlier data. …

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