**Input Fast-Forwarding**

This paper introduces a new architectural framework, known as input fast-forwarding, that can enhance the performance of deep networks. The main idea is to incorporate a parallel path that sends representations of input values forward to deeper network layers. This scheme is substantially different from ‘deep supervision’ in which the loss layer is re-introduced to earlier layers. The parallel path provided by fast-forwarding enhances the training process in two ways. First, it enables the individual layers to combine higher-level information (from the standard processing path) with lower-level information (from the fast-forward path). Second, this new architecture reduces the problem of vanishing gradients substantially because the fast-forwarding path provides a shorter route for gradient backpropagation. In order to evaluate the utility of the proposed technique, a Fast-Forward Network (FFNet), with 20 convolutional layers along with parallel fast-forward paths, has been created and tested. The paper presents empirical results that demonstrate improved learning capacity of FFNet due to fast-forwarding, as compared to GoogLeNet (with deep supervision) and CaffeNet, which are 4x and 18x larger in size, respectively. All of the source code and deep learning models described in this paper will be made available to the entire research community … **Escort**

Deep neural networks have achieved remarkable accuracy in many artificial intelligence applications, e.g. computer vision, at the cost of a large number of parameters and high computational complexity. Weight pruning can compress DNN models by removing redundant parameters in the networks, but it brings sparsity in the weight matrix, and therefore makes the computation inefficient on GPUs. Although pruning can remove more than 80% of the weights, it actually hurts inference performance (speed) when running models on GPUs. Two major problems cause this unsatisfactory performance on GPUs. First, lowering convolution onto matrix multiplication reduces data reuse opportunities and wastes memory bandwidth. Second, the sparsity brought by pruning makes the computation irregular, which leads to inefficiency when running on massively parallel GPUs. To overcome these two limitations, we propose Escort, an efficient sparse convolutional neural networks on GPUs. Instead of using the lowering method, we choose to compute the sparse convolutions directly. We then orchestrate the parallelism and locality for the direct sparse convolution kernel, and apply customized optimization techniques to further improve performance. Evaluation on NVIDIA GPUs show that Escort can improve sparse convolution speed by 2.63x and 3.07x, and inference speed by 1.38x and 1.60x, compared to CUBLAS and CUSPARSE respectively. … **Packing (PacGAN)**

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are innovative techniques for learning generative models of complex data distributions from samples. Despite remarkable recent improvements in generating realistic images, one of their major shortcomings is the fact that in practice, they tend to produce samples with little diversity, even when trained on diverse datasets. This phenomenon, known as mode collapse, has been the main focus of several recent advances in GANs. Yet there is little understanding of why mode collapse happens and why existing approaches are able to mitigate mode collapse. We propose a principled approach to handling mode collapse, which we call packing. The main idea is to modify the discriminator to make decisions based on multiple samples from the same class, either real or artificially generated. We borrow analysis tools from binary hypothesis testing—in particular the seminal result of Blackwell [Bla53]—to prove a fundamental connection between packing and mode collapse. We show that packing naturally penalizes generators with mode collapse, thereby favoring generator distributions with less mode collapse during the training process. Numerical experiments on benchmark datasets suggests that packing provides significant improvements in practice as well. …

# If you did not already know

**14**
*Saturday*
Apr 2018

Posted What is ...

in
Advertisements