Cooperative Game Theory google
In game theory, a cooperative game is a game where groups of players (‘coalitions’) may enforce cooperative behaviour, hence the game is a competition between coalitions of players, rather than between individual players. An example is a coordination game, when players choose the strategies by a consensus decision-making process. Recreational games are rarely cooperative, because they usually lack mechanisms by which coalitions may enforce coordinated behaviour on the members of the coalition. Such mechanisms, however, are abundant in real life situations (e.g. contract law).
Cooperative theory starts with a formalization of games that abstracts away altogether from procedures and … concentrates, instead, on the possibilities for agreement. … There are several reasons that explain why cooperative games came to be treated separately. One is that when one does build negotiation and enforcement procedures explicitly into the model, then the results of a non-cooperative analysis depend very strongly on the precise form of the procedures, on the order of making offers and counter-offers and so on. This may be appropriate in voting situations in which precise rules of parliamentary order prevail, where a good strategist can indeed carry the day. But problems of negotiation are usually more amorphous; it is difficult to pin down just what the procedures are. More fundamentally, there is a feeling that procedures are not really all that relevant; that it is the possibilities for coalition forming, promising and threatening that are decisive, rather than whose turn it is to speak. … Detail distracts attention from essentials. Some things are seen better from a distance; the Roman camps around Metzada are indiscernible when one is in them, but easily visible from the top of the mountain. …

Sketch, Shingle, & Hashing (SSH) google
Similarity search on time series is a frequent operation in large-scale data-driven applications. Sophisticated similarity measures are standard for time series matching, as they are usually misaligned. Dynamic Time Warping or DTW is the most widely used similarity measure for time series because it combines alignment and matching at the same time. However, the alignment makes DTW slow. To speed up the expensive similarity search with DTW, branch and bound based pruning strategies are adopted. However, branch and bound based pruning are only useful for very short queries (low dimensional time series), and the bounds are quite weak for longer queries. Due to the loose bounds branch and bound pruning strategy boils down to a brute-force search. To circumvent this issue, we design SSH (Sketch, Shingle, & Hashing), an efficient and approximate hashing scheme which is much faster than the state-of-the-art branch and bound searching technique: the UCR suite. SSH uses a novel combination of sketching, shingling and hashing techniques to produce (probabilistic) indexes which align (near perfectly) with DTW similarity measure. The generated indexes are then used to create hash buckets for sub-linear search. Our results show that SSH is very effective for longer time sequence and prunes around 95% candidates, leading to the massive speedup in search with DTW. Empirical results on two large-scale benchmark time series data show that our proposed method can be around 20 times faster than the state-of-the-art package (UCR suite) without any significant loss in accuracy. …

Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) google
Multiple factor analysis (MFA) is a factorial method devoted to the study of tables in which a group of individuals is described by a set of variables (quantitative and / or qualitative) structured in groups. It may be seen as an extension of:<BR/>
• Principal component analysis (PCA) when variables are quantitative,<BR/>
• Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) when variables are qualitative,<BR/>
• Factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD) when the active variables belong to the two types. …