**Ternary Neural Networks (TNN)**

The computation and storage requirements for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are usually high. This issue limit their deployability on ubiquitous computing devices such as smart phones or wearables. In this paper, we propose ternary neural networks (TNNs) in order to make deep learning more resource-efficient. We train these TNNs using a teacher-student approach. Using only ternary weights and ternary neurons, with a step activation function of two-thresholds, the student ternary network learns to mimic the behaviour of its teacher network. We propose a novel, layer-wise greedy methodology for training TNNs. During training, a ternary neural network inherently prunes the smaller weights by setting them to zero. This makes them even more compact thus more resource-friendly. We devise a purpose-built hardware design for TNNs and implement it on FPGA. The benchmark results with our purpose-built hardware running TNNs reveal that, with only 1.24 microjoules per image, we can achieve 97.76% accuracy with 5.37 microsecond latency and with a rate of 255K images per second on MNIST. … **Bayes Factor**

In statistics, the use of Bayes factors is a Bayesian alternative to classical hypothesis testing. Bayesian model comparison is a method of model selection based on Bayes factors.

Bayes factors provide a numerical value that quantifies how well a hypothesis predicts the empirical data relative to a competing hypothesis. For example, if the BF is 4, this indicates: ‘This empirical data is 4 times more probable if H1 were true than if H0 were true.’. Hence, evidence points towards H1. A BF of 1 means that data are equally likely to be occured under both hypotheses. In this case, it would be impossible to decide between both.

http://…/a-short-taxonomy-of-bayes-factors … **Firefighter Problem**

The dynamics of infectious diseases spread is crucial in determining their risk and offering ways to contain them. We study sequential vaccination of individuals in networks. In the original (deterministic) version of the Firefighter problem, a fire breaks out at some node of a given graph. At each time step, b nodes can be protected by a firefighter and then the fire spreads to all unprotected neighbors of the nodes on fire. The process ends when the fire can no longer spread. We extend the Firefighter problem to a probabilistic setting, where the infection is stochastic. We devise a simple policy that only vaccinates neighbors of infected nodes and is optimal on regular trees and on general graphs for a sufficiently large budget. We derive methods for calculating upper and lower bounds of the expected number of infected individuals, as well as provide estimates on the budget needed for containment in expectation. We calculate these explicitly on trees, d-dimensional grids, and Erd\H{o}s R\'{e}nyi graphs. Finally, we construct a state-dependent budget allocation strategy and demonstrate its superiority over constant budget allocation on real networks following a first order acquaintance vaccination policy. …

# If you did not already know

**20**
*Tuesday*
Mar 2018

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