Whenever you spot a trend plotted against time, you would be looking at a time series. The de facto choice for studying financial market performance and weather forecasts, time series are one of the most pervasive analysis techniques because of its inextricable relation to time—we are always interested to foretell the future.
What is the curse of dimensionality? This post gives a no-nonsense overview of the concept, plain and simple.
There are several aspects of the R language that make it hard to learn, and repeating a model for groups in a data set used to be one of them. Here I briefly describe R’s built-in approach, show a much easier one, then refer you to a new approach described in the superb book, R for Data Science, by Hadley Wickham and Garrett Grolemund. For ease of comparison, I’ll use some of the same examples in that book. The gapminder data set contains a few measurements for countries around the world every five years from 1952 through 2007.
Data visualization and charting are actively evolving as a more and more important field of web development. In fact, people perceive information much better when it is represented graphically rather than numerically as raw data. As a result, various business intelligence apps, reports, and so on widely implement graphs and charts to visualize and clarify data and, consequently, to speed up and facilitate its analysis for further decision making.
We have been developing weighted effect coding in an ongoing series of publications (hint: a publication in the R Journal will follow). To include nominal and ordinal variables as predictors in regression models, their categories first have to be transformed into so-called ‘dummy variables’. There are many transformations available, and popular is ‘dummy coding’ in which the estimates represent deviations from a preselected ‘reference category’.