The goal of this chapter is to introduce the conceptual framework of Bayesian data analysis. Bayesian data analysis has two foundational ideas. The first idea is that Bayesian inference is reallocation of credibility across possibilities. The second foundational idea is that the possibilities, over which we allocate credibility, are parameter values in meaningful mathematical models. These two fundamental ideas form the conceptual foundation for every analysis in this book. Simple examples of these ideas are presented in this chapter. The rest of the book merely fills in the mathematical and computational details for specific applications of these two ideas. This chapter also explains the basic procedural steps shared by every Bayesian analysis. Introduction: Credibility, Models, and Parameters