Although there is considerable talk of the need for data scientists in the United States and world economies, and although a number of universities throughout the United States are now offering degrees in the data science area, there is surprisingly little consensus as to what comprises the key scientific and engineering challenges of data science, which has recently been raised as a matter of national concern. Many current programs emphasize statistical sampling techniques, approaches to visualization, and the programming of analysis packages. However, we contend that these are not the only areas that are required for the big data needs of emergent ‘fourth paradigm’ data-driven science, where the scientific method is enhanced by the integration of significant data sources into the practice of scientific research. The Science of Data Science