Item response theory (IRT) models are a class of statistical models used to describe the response behaviors of individuals to a set of items having a certain number of options. They are adopted by researchers in social science, particularly in the analysis of performance or attitudinal data, in psychology, education, medicine, marketing and other fields where the aim is to measure latent constructs. Most IRT analyses use parametric models that rely on assumptions that often are not satisfied. In such cases, a nonparametric approach might be preferable; nevertheless, there are not many software implementations allowing to use that. … Item Response Theory (IRT) google